Social and economic factors are considered “upstream” causes of health and health inequity, relative to the “downstream” medical determinants of health. These include factors such as poverty; housing; employment availability and conditions; education; racism; access to nutritious food; public safety; transportation; infrastructure (e.g., water, sanitation, broadband); social isolation; environmental conditions; and the presence and strength […]
Past Theme Areas
Abundant research documents a growing crisis caused by the closing of rural hospitals and clinics, provider shortages and scope-of-practice restrictions, changes in insurance/reimbursement policies, and related issues that leave persons residing in rural areas especially vulnerable to acute and chronic conditions, along with long-term disability. While documenting problems is important, the IRL program is primarily […]
Youth violence refers to behaviors that are harmful to people, irrespective of whether the harm is emotional or physical. The impact of youth violence on the health of victims, the perpetrator, and societies more generally, is profound. Inequities in youth violence and remedies for it are troubling. The following teams are implementing research projects that […]
Resilience is the capacity of a person and/or community to anticipate and adapt successfully to challenges. Resilience has been linked to health through the concept of allostatic load, which is defined as the “wear and tear” due to repeated or chronic stress. This stress can lead to negative health in the forms of immune response […]
The early childhood period is a sensitive period for health and well-being throughout the life course. The following teams are implementing community-engaged research that focuses on improving social, emotional, and developmental health and well-being in early childhood, and on reducing gaps in early childhood outcomes between more- and less- advantaged populations.
Housing and community development are among the multiple determinants of health. Affordable housing, economic development, as well as community building and engagement, strengthens communities and improves health. The following teams are implementing research projects that focus on incorporating health principles into the design, building, and maintenance of affordable housing and services and activities that enhance […]